|Species:|| Serinus serinus|
DescriptionEditThe European Serin is a small, compact bird. This species is the smallest Fringillidae of Europe, closely related to the Island Canary (Serinus canaria). The adult male has streaked dull yellowish-green and dull dark brown upperparts with bright yellow or greenish-yellow rump. The uppertail-coverts and the tail are dark brown, and the rectrices show fine yellowish edges.
The upperwing shows pale tips on median and greater coverts, forming two wingbars. The flight feathers are dark brown with fine pale edges. On the underparts, chin, throat and breast are bright yellow. Belly, vent and undertail-coverts are white. Breast side and flanks are streaked black. On the head, forehead and forecrown are bright yellow, extending along the supercilium, and down behind the ear-coverts to the neck side. Cheeks, ear-coverts and moustachial stripe are greyish-olive. There is a small subocular yellow patch. Crown and nape are yellowish-green with fine darker streaks. The short bill is brown or dark horn with paler lower mandible. The eyes are dark brown. Legs and feet are pinkish-brown. The female resembles male but she has duller plumage with heavier streaking overall. She has narrower supercilium and paler rump. The juvenile is browner than female, with broadly streaked upperparts and whitish underparts with weak streaking. 
Breeding starts in May. The nest is built by the female in a tree or bush in open woodland. The nest is a neatly constructed cup of stems, roots, and moss that is lined with feathers and hair. The hen lays and incubates about 4 eggs that are smooth, glossy and pale light blue with purplish speckles. The eggs are about 17 mm long. Both parents feed the young after they have hatched. Incubation lasts for abou 13 day. Young fledge after about 2 weeks. 
Eats grains and tree seeds , and sometimes insects.
The European Serin’s typical call is a loud, trilled twittering “trirrlilit” mainly uttered while flying, and used as contact call between mates. We can also hear a sharp, descending “ch-ik-ik-ik-ik-ik-ik-si-see”. The alarm call is a high-pitched “tsooee” or “tsswee”. The song is given from exposed perch or in flight. This is a prolonged, wheezy, chirping, a rapid mixture of melodious and high-pitched notes and short buzzy trills.
Distribution and habitatEdit
Lives in open woodland. Breeds in Europe (except British Is and almost entire Fennoscandia) E to E Baltic, W Russia and Belarus, S to Mediterranean islands, N, W & CS Turkey, C Georgia, Canary Is (Tenerife, Gran Canaria), N Africa (N & C Morocco E to N Tunisia and NW & NE Libya), Lebanon and Israel; winters SW & S Europe and N Africa E to N Egypt, also Iraq. 
This species has an extremely large range and is considered as least concerned.